US Interventions in Canada – A Brief History

Region: ,
Theme:

•Let’s Invade Canada

The US has always maintained a dream of annexing Canada and expanding the American homeland empire to include the entire length and breadth of the North American continent. The ambition to take territorial control of Canada has existed since before the founding of the US and has not measurably diminished since then. The US has invaded Canada five times, the last attempt involving plans to bury most of Canada in poison gas. In the 1970s the US launched an extensive program of propaganda and violence intended to fragment and dismember Canada as a prelude to swallowing it, and is again trying to absorb Canada today through its misbegotten “Fortress America” scheme. A forcible military option disappeared from the radar for some time, but could easily reappear in the future especially as the US begins to increasingly covet Canada’s fresh-water resources.
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The Americans were expansionist and belligerent long before the founding of their nation, first attacking Canada in an extended siege in 1690, hoping to seize Montreal and the entire province of Quebec. (1) Fortunately, the American commander, Sir William Phips, wasn’t equal to the task, his expedition’s ships and men mostly destroyed by the Canadian militia, forcing his retreat. Then, almost immediately upon the founding of the US as a nation in 1776, the Americans twice invaded Canada on a mission of conquest, seeking to add Canada’s 10 million square kilometers and all the nation’s resources to America’s original 13 states, a rather great ambition at the time. (2) Both these invasionary expeditions failed when the Americans were driven back and forced to surrender in their own cities.
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The Americans tried again in 1812, with US President Thomas Jefferson so arrogantly sure of success that he referred to the imminent conquest of Canada as just “a matter of marching”. However, British and Canadian forces proved superior to the Americans in all respects and the Canadians not only repelled the US invasion but penetrated into the US all the way to Washington, forcing then President James Madison to flee for his life. Several American cities were surrendered to Canada in the process. As one writer pointed out, “In the fantasy world of American “history”, the failed American attempt to occupy and annex Canada is magically cast as a “victory”, a fiction which, like so many others, is widely believed in the U.S. to the present day”. (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
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But the Americans didn’t stop there. In 1866, Washington passed new legislation providing for the annexation of all of Canada’s territories, which provided the impetus for Canada to create the federation that exists today. (8) (9) The US law is still on the books, and was an invasion plan that contemplated the confiscation of all public lands and taking control of all railways and waterways. The various new “Canadian states” would be forced to establish new legislatures conforming to US laws and practices. Canada’s new federation caused this plan to be stillborn, but the Americans persisted in their dream.
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In the 1930s the US War Department created yet another detailed plan to invade Canada, this one even given the official title of “Joint Army and Navy Basic War Plan – Red”. It was a 94-page document stamped “Secret” and had been five years in the planning under US President Hoover, and was updated again in 1935 and approved by Franklin Roosevelt. In that year, the US War Department obtained $57 million in funds to build three air bases on the Canadian border for the sole purpose of pre-emptive invasion attacks on Canada. The bases were to be camouflaged as civilian airports, but powerful enough in military terms “to dominate the industrial heart of Canada”.
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The US military held massive ‘war games’ involving some 50,000 troops on Canada’s border, containing practice maneuvers for the eventual invasion. Even in those days the Americans were already involved in chemical and biological warfare; one of Roosevelt’s 1935 amendments was the authorisation to the US military for “the immediate first use of poison gas against the Canadians”, and recommended bombing to total destruction any cities that could not be captured. The US maintained this plan on the books during World War II, with the intention of pursuing it after completing victories in Europe and Japan. The plan was presented to a Committee of the US Congress in secret testimony but was discovered when it was published by mistake. I won’t dwell on the details here since Michel Chossudovsky wrote a recent article that contained a copy of the entire document.
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In a published article, the Washington Post admitted this was not only “a bold plan”, but “a step-by-step plan to invade, seize and annex our neighbor to the north. First, we send a joint Army-Navy overseas force to capture the port city of Halifax, cutting the Canadians off from their British allies. Then we seize Canadian power plants near Niagara Falls, so they freeze in the dark. Then the US Army invades on three fronts – marching from Vermont to take Montreal and Quebec, charging out of North Dakota to grab the railroad center at Winnipeg, and storming out of the Midwest to capture the strategic nickel mines of Ontario. Meanwhile, the US Navy seizes the Great Lakes and blockades Canada’s Atlantic and Pacific ports.”
But the Americans don’t give up easily; in late 2013 and early 2014 the entire process was repeating itself with yet another flood of media debate about a US takeover of Canada, with Quebec separatism conveniently again raising its head with such perfect timing. In October of 2013, American-born columnist Diane Francis proposed a final takeover of Canada by the US. According to her, “If Canada is going to be the target of a creeping takeover from a big player, we may as well manage the process”. (10) Her entire proposal is foolish nonsense, riddled with false assumptions and insults to the intelligence of all Canadians. I personally doubt any of the ideas presented are actually hers; they most likely originated with the Council on Foreign Relations and the Tri-Lateral Commission. Still, the American ambition is there, and the US neo-cons are unlikely to abandon their dreams anytime soon. And, distressingly, almost no Canadians will take note of the recurring odd coincidence of Quebec separatism fueling the push for a continental merger, and make the mental effort to connect the dots.
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Today, the US still harbors the same plans to annex Canada, beginning with the creation of US Northern Command military division which President Bush’s Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld referred to as a plan of “Binational integration” of military command structures. This is an entirely US-created imaginary concoction prepared without Canada’s input or agreement in which the US military command would extend its jurisdiction throughout all of Canada including the Canadian Arctic. The Americans intend to set an agenda for this “integration” that would exert enormous influence and control over legal, political, economic and military affairs of Canada. Canada has also been bullied into participating in America’s continental missile-defense program as part of this military integration scheme. The enactment of these plans would amount to a de facto annexation where Canada would cease to function as a sovereign nation and would become a kind of US protectorate. Canada’s Conservative government at the time appeared to have embraced the American plan, along with supporting the US worldwide war agenda and the false “war on terror”. This may well be the start of Canada’s disappearance as a nation. So far as Washington is concerned, this plan for “Securing the North American Security Perimeter” is their way of “bringing Canada into Fortress America”, a fortress from which Canada will never escape.
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The Americans also exert intense pressure on Canada to purchase extensive and unaffordable military aircraft and hardware as a means of demonstrating Canadian loyalty to the American Empire. The foolishness of Canada’s acquiescence is obvious. Canada has no enemies, or at least Canada had no enemies prior to Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s eager support for the US wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and his blind support for Israel. But nevertheless, the only nation that would ever attack Canada is the US itself, and the modest military purchases affordable by Canada would do nothing to prevent it.
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Due to its often overwhelming political and military power, the US possesses a disproportionate level of negotiating power as well, and enters trade agreements like the WTO and NAFTA by forcing the other participants to agree to rules designed to benefit only the US. In one recent trade agreement with Canada for the pipeline transmission of Canadian oil to the US, the Americans demanded – and received – agreement that once the flow of petroleum began it could not be stopped, even if Canada found itself in a position of shortage for its own needs. In this event, Canada would be permitted to reduce oil shipments to the US, if and only if, it also reduced shipments to its own refineries by the same proportion. It is amazing that Canada would have been so weak-minded as to submit to this extent of American bullying. The agreement effectively states that Canada must export oil to the US even if it has none, and must import every drop just to re-export it to the US.
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Several years ago, as part of a plan for policing the Canadian-US border, the US announced a joint policing project that would give US agents and officers the right to pursue suspects or conduct law enforcement operations on the Canadian side of the border. But, as with all international agrements, the US demanded that its officers would be exempt from Canadian law, a clear violation of Canadian sovereignty. The same occurred with US Customs and Immigration officers doing US customs pre-clearance at Canadian airports for travelers to the US. The officers violated numerous Canadian laws with abandon, including levying and collecting fines from Canadians – while still in Canada – for a multitude of minor so-called customs violations that violated no Canadian law, actions for which they had no authority whatever, but were instead penalising Canadians according to US law – and sometimes according to no existing law at all. One of these was fining Canadians large sums of money for possessing Cuban cigars – while still in Canada. They simply applied real or imaginary US laws to Canadian citizens in Canada, and claimed immunity from prosecution or recourse. When Canada hosted a G-20 conference, American Secret Service and other agents attempted to take control of the entire Canadian security apparatus, causing serious diplomatic incidents all under a blanket claim of Americans being immune to all Canadian law and constantly referring to domestic police authorities as “Those f***ing Canadians”. There have been many unpleasant incursions of this kind.
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Another episode that didn’t exactly endear the Americans to Canada was a unilateral declaration by the US military that Canada’s Northwest Passage was “international territory” (which it clearly is not), and open to US commercial shipping. Even worse, it declared that US military vessels were free to operate in Canada’s open Northern waters and below the ice shelf (in submarines) without either notification or permission from Canada. The Americans suggested that if Canada were determined to claim its own Northern territory it would need to invest substantially in military capability to defend that area – with the US eager to sell Canada all the hardware necessary to defend itself from its supposed best friend and neighbor.
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The US, particularly the entire Western portion, has been so profligate with its water supplies that much of the nation will likely soon become an arid desert, unable to support any kind of agriculture, primarily California which produces much of the nation’s food products. The US already has its eyes on Canada’s ample supplies of fresh water and has already bullied Canada into the creation of a canal to divert much of Canada’s water to the US SouthWest. Such an agreement of course is very much to Canada’s detriment. The Canadian government will not release any of these documents to the public under claims of “national security”, but if the Canadian people had any clear idea of the extent to which their national sovereignty has already been surrendered to the Americans, they would hang every politician from the nearest tree. It is astonishing that Canadians are so ignorant of these agreements and do not demand the publication of the full texts.
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It needs to be pointed out here that from political and “defense” machinations or from a greed for Canada’s natural resources, it is very likely that the US will one day invade Canada. The writing has been on the wall for 300 years and Canadians would have to be blind to not see it. One of the sad parts of this sorry predicament is that when this happens, nobody will come to Canada’s defense. Canada as a nation has so closely and blindly bound itself to the US that most of the world looks on it as America’s little brother and a military dispute will be looked upon as a family squabble. It may be true that Canada has few enemies in the world, but it is also true that Canada has no friends. This poor country has taken the easy road, blindly and naively exposing itself to creeping American colonisation, and has never formed international alliances or made friends who could be counted upon in time of need. And when the Americans finally show their true colors, Canada’s unfriendly world will simply sit back and watch. There will be no international disapprobation. The only thing that might save Canada would be closer alliances with nations like Russia and China, the same people the Americans taught the Canadians to hate so bitterly for so many decades.
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Canada’s Separatist Movement
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Beginning in the mid-1960s and continuing into the 1970s there was persistent and widespread discussion in Canada about the possibility and wisdom of joining the US to become a continent-country. While lacking details, the presentation was seductive. We were, after all, “almost the same” people with similar interests and culture. We read the same books, watched the same movies and TV programs, superficially appeared to hold the same values, so a merger should present no significant cultural challenge. As well, we new Canadian-Americans would benefit from the strength of the US dollar and economy, more manufactured goods would be available at lower prices, and we would be part of a winning team internationally. Part of the theory was that Canada was so small and insignificant that independent survival would be difficult in the long run, and a merger (takeover, actually) would really be in Canada’s best interest.
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The proposition received much play in the media, in academic circles, and especially on university campuses. Canadians in those years, still basking in the simple life from the 1950s, were politically innocent and unsuspecting, and certainly we students were hopelessly naive about the ruthlessness of foreign affairs. We participated eagerly in those discussions, weighing in our minds and debating the pros and cons of such a merger of nations. The prospect of Canada joining the US in some kind of Republican Federation would of course have been enormously to the advantage of the US and equally greatly to Canada’s detriment, but nevertheless the prospect was pushed and debated, recommended in many circles, presenting what appeared to be a plausible rationale for such a move.
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As students, we noted at the time that the topic displayed a curious unwillingness to die; discussion would cease for a time but would then reappear a bit more persistently than before. And even though we were dimly aware that the topic appeared to have remarkable resurrectional powers, we still somehow assumed the debate was spontaneous and indigenous to Canada. It never occurred to us at the time that the topic’s promotion might have had a foreign and sinister source entirely independent of Canadians. But, as we later discovered, it did indeed have a “foreign and sinister source” emanating from the bowels of the US government – the CIA. (11) (12) (13)
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It was precisely during this debate that Canada began to suffer the anguish of potential disintegration, as its French-speaking province of Quebec was suddenly threatening to separate from Canada to become an independent nation. Few of us had any understanding of the motivation for this sudden and violent Quebec push for separatism, and felt helpless as the separatist sentiments were increasingly inflamed to a dangerous level. A small terrorist group (FLQ) became active, resulting in several kidnappings and murders, bombs exploding in various places, and other frightening acts of violence. Among other results of this new development was yet another resurrection of the Canada-US Federation debate, now insistently proclaiming that if Quebec did separate from Canada the only sensible course remaining for the now-fragmented nation would be to take advantage of the American ‘welcome’ and join the US as another “state”.
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Then, on September 24, 1971, the Montreal Star published a photocopy of a leaked letter effectively identifying the Quebec separatist movement and the FLQ terrorist group as a CIA false flag operation. The letter was a top secret memo from the CIA dated October 16, 1970, and was written to CIA agents who had been instrumental in creating and inflaming the FLQ to their acts of violence. The missive read in part: “Some sources recommend that we take urgent steps to temporarily stop contact with FLQ activists because Canadian government measures could have undesirable consequences.” Given this, one needn’t much of an imagination to see the CIA deeply involved in the Quebec separatist movement, since it was the US that had by far the most to gain from such an event. An independent Quebec would have been rather useless as a political entity and would most likely have been forced to rejoin at some point, either the new US-Canada federation or become part of the French Republic.
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A great many people, including many academics, were convinced the CIA had conducted these operations in a deliberate attempt to split Canada for the eventual purpose of what would have been a forced takeover of the country. This top-secret memo was of course vehemently denounced by the US government; the State Department claimed that the CIA address listed on the header of the memo was a naval hospital, which claim proved to be false. Wikipedia, true to its roots and dishonest as always, posts an undocumented claim that the CIA letter was a forgery by the Soviet Union who was concerned it might somehow be blamed for the unrest in Canada. I am unaware of any reason or sentiment existing in Canada at the time that might have prompted Canadians to blame the USSR for involvement in an activity from which it had absolutely nothing to gain. The Americans, on the other hand, had quite a lot to gain.
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After publication of the letter, many bits of documented and convincing evidence appeared independently to satisfy most people that it was the US government, working through the CIA, that not only assisted and trained, but created, the terrorist FLQ group (just as the US created Al-Qaida, finally admitted by Hillary Clinton) in a planned and deliberate attempt to destabilize Canada with a view to disintegration and eventual takeover by the US. As one obvious indication of deep CIA involvement with the FLQ, when the kidnappers negotiated the return of a live hostage in return for freedom, it was a CIA-owned Sabreliner aircraft that flew them to Cuba. (14) (15) (16) (17)
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Today, most observers agree that the CIA was responsible for the activities of separatist groups in Quebec in the 1960s, as well as having been the source of the persistent Canada-US merger proposals. The journalist François Lisée wrote: “in Quebec, there is almost unanimous agreement that one or more networks of the CIA was working in the shadows”. And in September of 1973, the Director of espionage for Canada’s RCMP, Leslie J. Bennett, said that Montreal was infiltrated by a large number of CIA agents during the separatist crisis, that the CIA had “invaded” Canada and was working in the interests of Washington. His observations immediately led to extreme US political pressure on Canada; shortly after making this statement, Bennett was accused of being a spy for Russia’s KGB and, with his career ruined, left Canada and went into exile in Australia. Then 20 years later, in 1993, the Canadian government finally admitted that the accusations against Bennett had been falsely made, and that he was innocent of the charges of being a double agent.
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One of the sadder parts of this tragic episode in Canada’s history was the vehement denial by then Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau who vowed that the CIA had never had any operations in Canada, and that no such efforts could, or would, have been made without the full knowledge of the Canadian government. But in fact the CIA had had many operations in Canada, both with and without the knowledge of the Canadian government. Trudeau’s statements were outright lies, made from embarrassment, incompetence, and a desire to hide the truth.
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•The CIA and Cubans in Canada
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The US government and the CIA did not always work independently of Canada’s government and police forces, but their work was always violent and illegal nonetheless. One notable example occurred in Montreal in 1972 where Canada’s RCMP assisted the US in its secret war against Cuba. On April 4 of that year, CIA operatives exploded a bomb at the Cuban Consulate trade offices in Montreal, klling one person and wounding seven others, and causing extensive damage. Canada’s RCMP and the CIA went to work immediately in an operation that had been well-rehearsed in advance. When they arrived at the consulate, the Canadian police arrested all the Cuban staff – who were not the perpetrators, but the victims of the attack – and who also had diplomatic immunity and could not legally be arrested or held. But arrested and held they were, incommunicado in a Montreal police station and, with the consulate now empty of staff, the CIA violated diplomatic sanctity and scavenged the premises. (16) (17)
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During those hours when the building was vacant and unguarded, the CIA examined and seized everything of interest. Their most valuable finding was a code book, which they described as one of the largest intelligence windfalls. But the RCMP played no part in the investigation; according to reports, the code book and all other seized documents were resting on a CIA desk in Langley, Virginia within hours of the initial explosion. Of course, both Canada’s police and the US government denied any involvement in these criminal acts. But then on October 6, 1975 Ronald Dellums, a member of the Committee of the House of Representatives investigating the activities of the CIA, revealed that the attack on the Cuban consulate in Montreal was the result of a CIA operation that was intended to obtain secret information on Cubans.
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Canada’s vaunted RCMP were little more than messenger boys for the CIA who entered the country, committed terrorist acts including murder, then quietly slippped out again with the blame being placed on anti-Cuban activists from Florida. And this wasn’t the only time the CIA was active in terrorism in Canada; there were many others, some intended to encourage the separation of Quebec and the breakup of Canada, and others directed at the Cubans.
• In 1963, the CIA/FLQ exploded a bomb at the National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa, killing one person.
• In 1968, the CIA/FLQ placed a bomb in a mailbox next to a Canadian Tire store in Ottawa.
• In 1969, the CIA/FLQ set off a powerful bomb that ripped through the Montreal Stock Exchange, causing massive destruction and seriously injuring twenty-seven people.
• In 1966, the CIA directed a bazooka attack against the Cuban Embassy in Ottawa
• In 1966, the CIA exploded bombs at the Cuban trade offices in Ottawa
• In 1967, the CIA set off a bomb at the Cuba Pavillion at Expo in Montreal
• In 1967, the CIA exploded a bomb at the warehouses of a Canadian firm trading with Cuba
• In 1967, the CIA bombed the Cuban trade offices in Montreal
• In 1969, the CIA placed a bomb in the doorway of the Cuban consulate in Montreal
• In 1971, the CIA again bombed the Cuban trade offices in Montreal
• In 1974, the CIA exploded a bomb in the Cuban Embassy in Ottawa
• In 1976, the CIA set off an explosive device at the Cuban Consulate in Montreal
• In 1980, the CIA exploded a bomb at the Cuban Embassy and Consulate in Montreal
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And through all of this, the Canadian authorities appear to have never had any suspects and have never laid any charges against the perpetrators of these terrorist acts. It would be appropriate to wonder why not.
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Canada’s Avro Arrow
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Canada once had a thriving high-tech aircraft industry that, in the late 1960s, had designed and put into production a supersonic jet fighter with exciting new area-rule technology – the Avro Arrow – that was the fastest plane in the world, and much superior to anything the US had at the time. Prototypes and test aircraft had flown, and the aircraft was ready to be put into production with much of the world eagerly waiting.
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Then in an astonishing surprise, Canada’s Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker, abruptly announced the immediate cancellation of the entire Arrow development project, rendering 40,000 people unemployed without warning or notice, and more or less signing the death warrant for the country’s aerospace industry. But this was more than a simple project cancellation: the government ordered the immediate destruction of everything related to the Arrow project. All operating aircraft, prototypes and unfinished aircraft were to be cut into pieces and disposed of as scrap metal. In addition, the entire construction infrastructure for the Arrow was quickly destroyed, including all manufacturing jigs and equipment, as were all the documents, research and test data, blueprints, plans and drawings. Everything in Canadian hands related to the technology and know-how of the Arrow was destroyed.
No sensible explanation was ever given to a disturbed Canadian public. The government proffered weak excuses of excessive cost during a time of necessary austerity, but those were hollow claims to apply to such strikingly successful and proven technology. The acts of destruction were explained by a claim that the USSR had been spying on Canada and this was meant to prevent the technology from falling into Soviet hands. But the claim is clearly nonsense. In a normal world, feeling insecure from the thought of thieves in our neighborhood, the usual response would be to fit a better lock on the door. Canada’s solution was to destroy everything in the house so there would be nothing to steal. (18) (19) (20)
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The Americans had learned of Canada’s aeronautical breakthrough because Canada at the time had no wind tunnels suitable for the testing of this revolutionary aircraft and had arranged to use American facilities. The US in those days was determined to obtain what it called ‘air superiority’ in all respects, and the prospect of Canada producing (and selling worldwide) a military aircraft that would render obsolete America’s best, was both alarming and threatening.
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Canada’s government was careful to dismiss any accusations of American interference in the Arrow project, claiming its decisions were entirely made in Canada, but this claim withers under scrutiny because after Canada killed the Arrow, the US government gave Canada – free of charge, and for no sensible reason – an entire squadron of their own Phantom aircraft to replace the destroyed Arrows. The carrot and the stick. The only theory that fits all the known facts is that the US bullied Canada into abandoning the project, and backed up the bullying with threats that Canada must have considered not only credible but imminent and frightening – most likely a military strike. (21) We will probably never know the precise tactics the US government used, but clearly they must have frightened the hell out of Canada for the government to unilaterally, suddenly and without apparent cause, destroy every trace of the best military aircraft on earth at the time.
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One reason for American vindictiveness on the matter was that the US was at the time attempting to bully Canada into sharing the capabilities of NORAD across North America, to serve as a dedicated air-defense network against Soviet attack, but totally under American control. Canada’s production of such a superior aircraft would have made the Americans irrelevant, effectively killing NORAD and failing in a major attempt in their overall effort to subjugate and perhaps annex Canada.
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Since the Avro Arrow is still a sensitive topic in Canada, the US will not likely declassify their related documents for another generation, when all participants are long deceased. Canada will not likely ever declassify theirs. To this day, the Avro Arrow is a shameful blot on Canada’s collective memory for caving in to America’s repugnant bullying, and one which still stokes strong feelings of resentment toward the Americans. It is worth noting here that in 2013, about 50 years later, as Canada was evaluating potential purchases of various new-generation military aircraft, many people claimed that a modified and re-engined Arrow would still be equal or superior to anything available in the market.
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There was actually much more to this story. Diefenbaker must have resisted the American pressure beyond the level the Amerians thought reasonable, because they not only obtained the destruction of the Arrow but heavily interfered in Canada’s next election to ensure the government would fall and another party would be elected. Then-US President Kennedy hated Diefenbaker after the Arrow fiasco, and made great efforts to topple the government. Canadian author John Boyko, wrote a book titled Cold Fire, which touched on this and related matters, and noted the US almost fanatical irritation at Canada’s potential rise in continental and international affairs, stating that Kennedy “detested” what he termed “Canadian nationalism”, and went to great efforts to combat it, including interfering in Canada’s elections and even exerting enormous political pressure from a flood of sources to alter the country’s national budgets. The CIA even furnished a close friend of Kennedy with a false passport to enable him to enter Canada and issue detailed reports on the progress of the country’s elections, giving the Americans the ammunition they needed to sabotage the government. To say these represented direct attacks on Canadian sovereignty would be a gross understatement. (22) – (26)
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Even more, the Americans had always nourished a dream of integrating Canada into the US, by military means if necessary, and, according to Boyko’s book, at the last cabinet meeting prior to Kennedy’s assassination, one topic was precisely this integration, which was one reason the US was so desperate to absolutely crush any sign of what it termed “Canadian nationalism”. The objective was essentially to destroy Canadians’ identification with their own nation, then swallow them. The Jewish-American columnist Diane Francis wrote a book on this topic in 2015, I believe, promoting the idea that Canada would eventually be swallowed by the Americans so they should willingly enter the process and attempt to “manage” it. In any case, Boyko noted that, “From Canada’s point of view, [Kennedy] was an absolute bully”.
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Notes:
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(1) Battle of Quebec 1690 & Quebec Expedition 1711; https://minerdescent.com/2012/04/27/battle-of-quebec-1690
(2) How U.S. Forces Failed to Conquer Canada 200 Years Ago; https://www.history.com/news/how-u-s-forces-failed-to-conquer-canada-200-years-ago
(3) Reflecting on Canada’s National Sovereignty: America’s Plan to Annex and Invade Canada
By Prof Michel Chossudovsky; Global Research, June 30, 2013
(6) Invasion-Canada-1812-1813-Pierre-Berton
(7) Warof1812-History.com
(8)Bill to Annex Canada into the US (1866) – History of Canada; https://www.mysteriesofcanada.com/canadian-political-system/us-annexation-treaty
(9) July 1st 1867: Canada’s National Sovereignty: America’s Plan to Annex and Invade Canada
By Prof Michel Chossudovsky; Global Research 30 June 2013
(10) Merger Of The Century: Why Canada and America Should Merge; https://www.amazon.com/Merger-Century-Canada-America-Country-ebook/dp/B00ENH6ZIC
(11) US Interventions in Canada  – A Brief History – Global Research; https://www.globalresearch.ca/us-interventions-canada-brief-history/5692479
(12) La CIA au Québec – republiquelibre.org; https://www.republiquelibre.org/cousture/CIA.HTM
(13) WikiLeaks: CIA paper says U.S. is an ‘Exporter of Terror’; Aug 26, 2010; http://www.shanghaiexpat.com/phpbbforum/wikileaks-releases-cia-paper-on-u-s-as-exporter-of-terrori-t114783.html
(15) The New York Times, 31st June, 2005.
(16) Anti-cuba terrorist attacks – the canadian connection – july 2012; www.canadiannetworkoncuba.ca/tribunal/Media/The Canadian Connection.pdf
(18) CBC Digital Archives: The Avro Arrow: Canada’s Broken Dream; https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/avro-arrow
(19) The Avro Arrow, Canada’s ‘greatest plane that never was’; https://www.cbc.ca/archives/the-avro-arrow-canada-s-greatest-plane-that-never-was-1.4811068
(20) ADA-Arrow Digital Archives; https://www.avroarrow.org/
(22) Shutting Down the National Dream: A.V. Roe and the Tragedy of the Avro Arrow; by Greig Stewart; June 1, 1988
(23) The Avro Arrow: The story of the great Canadian Cold War combat jet; October 16, 2014; by Lawrence Miller
(24) The Arrow (TV Mini-Series 1997) – IMDb; John Aaron Productions, Manitoba Film & Sound Development Corporation
https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118641
(26) The Avro Arrow is Cancelled; James H. Marsh; February 19, 2012; The Canadian Encyclopedia; https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/avro-iarrowi-there-never-was-an-iarrowi-feature
 

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Articles by: Larry Romanoff

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