Global Research News

Video: Dozens Army Troops Killed, Injured in Idlib Clashes By South Front, January 22 2020

46 Syrian service members have been killed and 77 were wounded in recent clashes with radical militants in Greater Idlib in the period from January 16 to January 19, the Russian Reconciliation Center reported. According to the report, 57 civilians

US Foreign Interventionism and the Disappearance of Classical Liberalism By Shane Quinn, January 22 2020

American governments have intervened in dozens of countries globally since 1945, either directly by military invasions, indirectly through funding of elite opposition groups and stimulation of unrest, or covertly from its special services such as the CIA.

The level of …

OPCW Inspector Debunks Doctored Syria Report. “The Chemical Weapons Incident That Never Occurred” By Stephen Lendman, January 22 2020

Last November, WikiLeaks published information from an OPCW whistleblower.

A member of its fact finding mission to Douma, Syria, he expressed grave “concern over intentional bias introduced to a redacted version of the report he co-authored.”

The OPCW’s so-called Fact

Trump At Davos: “The Great American Comeback” By Andrew Korybko, January 22 2020

The theme of Trump’s second Davos speech during his presidency was what he described at the beginning of his talk as “The Great American Comeback”, a point that he returned to time and again to emphasize the fact that he

Netanyahu Drumming Up Opposition to ICC as World Leaders Descend on Israel By Middle East Eye, January 22 2020

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is planning to use the influx of foreign leaders to Israel for the 75th anniversary of Auschwitz’s liberation to drum up support for efforts to block the International Criminal Court (ICC) from investigating war crimes,

Former Nuremberg War Crimes Prosecutor on the Immoral Killing of the Iranian General. By Benjamin B. Ferencz, January 22 2020


To the Editor:

Now in my hundredth year, I cannot remain silent. I entered the United States in January 1921 as a poor immigrant boy, and I have felt obliged to repay the United States for the opportunities given

How Are Iran and the “Axis of the Resistance” Affected by the US Assassination of Soleimani? By Elijah J. Magnier, January 22 2020

The US President Donald Trump assassinated the commander of the “Axis of the Resistance”, the (Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps) IRGC – Quds Brigade Major General  Qassem Soleimani at Baghdad airport with little consideration of the consequences of this targeted killing.

Washington Desperation Drives Nuclear Proliferation By Ulson Gunnar, January 22 2020

A cornered animal is a dangerous animal. For the elite in Washington, with the terminal decline of their “American Century” and the global empire it built during it, they find themselves in a most unaccommodating corner and thus have become

The Davos World Economic Forum (WEF) Is at It Again – Celebrating 50th Anniversary By Peter Koenig, January 22 2020
Friends, this year the WEF is celebrating its 50th Anniversary. Forty-nine (49) of the insanely pompous – and every year more – WEF events took place in Davos, Switzerland. Just one, in 2002, after 9/11, was moved to New York City, paradoxically for ‘security reasons’ they said – the logic of such a move was as ludicrous as the WEF itself.
Guaido’s Last Ride By Daniel McAdams, January 22 2020

Remember Juan Guaido? Just a year ago the Venezuelan politician, unknown even in his own country, was tapped by the US government to lead a coup against the elected government of Nicolas Maduro. In a phone call with

Despite Limitations, Cuba’s State Budget Maintains Its Eminently Social Focus By Yudy Castro Morales, January 22 2020

The planned budget for 2020 is based on principles of conservation and rationality in expenditures, and maximizing income, mobilizing all untapped potential that exists in the economy, stated Vladimir Regueiro Ale, first deputy minister of Finances and Prices, during

US Violated Unspoken Rule of Engagement with Iran By Prof. As'ad AbuKhalil, January 22 2020

Something big and unprecedented has happened in the Middle East after the assassination of one of Iran’s top commanders, Qasim Suleimani

The U.S. has long assumed that assassinations of major figures in the Iranian “resistance-axis” in the Middle East …

Guantanamo: An Enduring Symbol of US Islamophobia By Maha Hilal, January 22 2020

Nothing hits you harder than realising you’ve been singled out for differential treatment. 

This is how I felt as a Muslim American when I learned about the opening of the Guantanamo Bay prison camp. It was 2002, and what would

Netanyahu and Gantz Vow Jordan Valley Annexation By Stephen Lendman, January 22 2020

The Jordan Valley, including the northern Dead Sea, comprise about 30% of the West Bank.

Most of the territory was designated Area C under Oslo II (1995).

The 1993 Oslo Accords gave Israel de facto control over the Occupied Territories …

Honouring Martin Luther King Jr. By James J. Zogby, January 22 2020

Thirty-two years ago this month, I was arrested sitting-in and blocking the entrance of the Israeli embassy in Washington, DC. The embassy was hosting an event that evening in honour of Martin Luther King Jr. Looking back at what

The UK Has a Housing Crisis – and We Need Actions, Not Words to Solve It By Johanna Ross, January 22 2020

The UK has a housing crisis. According to the National Housing Federation, 8.4 million people in England alone are living in sub-standard housing and 400,000 people are either homeless or at risk of being homeless. For one of the largest

Factors Behind the Hong Kong-China Extradition Bill By Larry Romanoff, January 21 2020

The 2019 protests in Hong Kong were triggered by Carrie Lam‘s attempt to pass an extradition bill between Hong Kong and Mainland China. It is unclear if this were done at Beijing’s request (which I believe it was) or

Propaganda and Lies: Iran and Ukrainian Flight PS752 By Kurt Nimmo, January 21 2020

Here is the cardinal rule about government—everything it says through its spokespersons, hired guns, public relations adepts, and the mockingbird corporate media should be considered a self-serving lie, or at best a distortion hammered into shape to fit a predefined

The Comey-Lynch Plausible Deniability Game By Renee Parsons, January 21 2020

As the structure and form of institutions continue to breakdown offering new perspectives and unexpected revelations, it is fitting that former FBI Director James Comey continues to be scrutinized regarding his behavior on multiple aspects of the HRC email scandal,

Libyan Peace Talks and Russian Diplomacy 101 By Strategic Culture Foundation, January 21 2020

Libya stands at a precarious watershed between a peaceful political settlement – or further civil war. But at least the two main warring factions this week entered into a process of dialogue when they attended a summit in Moscow hosted

(Burying) ‘The Salt of the Earth’ By Philip A Farruggio, January 21 2020

The Rolling Stones created a great and meaningful song ‘The Salt of the Earth’ in 1968:

I wanna drink to the hard working people
Let’s drink of the lowly of birth
I wanna raise my glass to the good and

Lisa Nandy MP: My Plans as the New Chair of Labour Friends of Palestine & the Middle East By Lisa Nandy, January 21 2020

I visited Palestine as a new MP and I was struck by the threats facing the next generation, the ferocity of the attacks they endure and the systematic denial of their rights. I met a three-year-old child whose house was

Iran Threatens to Quit NPT if EU Pursues Reimposition of Security Council Sanctions By Stephen Lendman, January 21 2020

On Monday, Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif said “(i)f the Europeans continue their improper behavior or send Iran’s file to the Security Council, we will withdraw from the NPT,” adding:’’

“The Europeans’ remarks lack legal justification…(I)f (they)  keep up their actions

NATO Terrorist Attacks Continue in Aleppo; Drones Hit Near Lattakia By Miri Wood, January 21 2020

NATO al Qaeda ground operatives in Syria continue their recent acceleration of terrorist atrocities against Syria. Rocket bombs have again been fired into civilian neighborhoods of Aleppo. Armed human garbage continue to prevent civilians to be escorted to safe areas

Huawei’s Meng Wanzhou’s Politicized Extradition Hearing By Stephen Lendman, January 21 2020

On December 1, 2018, bowing to Trump regime pressure, Canadian authorities unlawfully arrested and detained Chinese telecom giant Huawei chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou in Vancouver on trumped up charges.

Charges against her are politically and economically motivated.

Canada operates …

A Post-Brexit Britain Will Necessarily be Aggressive By Padraig McGrath, January 21 2020

On January 19th, following his brief meeting with Vladimir Putin at the Libyan peace conference in Berlin, British Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s press office released the following statement:

“The Prime Minister said there will be no normalization of our

US Official Delivers Trump’s Threatening Message to Sri Lankan President By K. Ratnayake, January 21 2020

US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs Alice G. Wells delivered a letter from President Donald Trump to President Gotabhaya Rajapakse during a one-day trip to Sri Lanka last Wednesday. The letter, according to the

A New Definition of Warfare By Philip Giraldi, January 21 2020

Supporters of Donald Trump often make the point that he has not started any new wars. One might observe that it has not been for lack of trying, as his cruise missile attacks on Syria based on fabricated evidence and

Video: Author of Leaked OPCW Engineering Report on Douma Speaks at UN Security Council By Dave DeCamp, January 21 2020

The UN Security Council met in New York on Monday to discuss the investigation by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) into an alleged chemical attack that was said to have taken place in April 2018 in

The Many Millions from the Duchy of Cornwall Properly Belong Not to Prince Charles but to the British People By Hans Stehling, January 21 2020

A duchy is a medieval country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess, a high-ranking nobleman hierarchically second to the king or queen in what is now a defunct European tradition.

The Duchy of Cornwall was created …

Pompeo to Iraq: If You Kick Us Out, We Will Bury You By Mike Whitney, January 21 2020

The Trump administration is threatening to destroy Iraq’s economy by withholding a critical source of money that is controlled by the Federal Reserve. The threat is a response to the Iraqi parliament’s unanimous decision to end Washington’s 17 year-long military

Knesset to Consider Netanyahu’s Bid for Immunity from Prosecution By Stephen Lendman, January 21 2020

Charged with bribery, fraud, and breach of trust by attorney general Avichai Mendelblit, Netanyahu is fighting for his political life and personal freedom.

According to Mendleblit, Netanyahu “damaged the image of the public service and public trust in it …

Video: Thousands of Turkish Proxy Fighters Flood into Libya Amid Berlin Peace Talks By South Front, January 21 2020

Turkey is increasing its military involvement in the Libyan conflict. After officially sending its military advisers and officers to support the Tripoli-based Government of National Accord (GNA), Turkey set up air defense systems near Mitiga Airport. The airport hosts warplanes

Moroccan Agriculture and Rural Development By Dr. Yossef Ben-Meir, January 21 2020

In recent years, Morocco has put in place the right frameworks for mobilizing rural communities to advance the nation’s sustainable development goals, yet it falls woefully short when it comes to implementation. As someone who has been engaged in rural

“Greater Albania” Or Greater Dystopia? Why Did Macedonian-Albanian Leader Refuse to “Pull a Kosovo”? By Andrew Korybko, January 21 2020

Macedonian-Albanian leader Ali Ahmeti revealed late last week that he refused to go along with the plot to partition his country, which naturally begs the question of why he didn’t want to “pull a Kosovo” when powerful forces were obviously

Berlin Conference Has Not Brought Peace to Libya By Paul Antonopoulos, January 21 2020

The Berlin Conference on Libya held on Sunday will not end the conflict in the North African country, especially as the leaders of the two opposing Libyan factions refused to face each other. In fact, Fayez al-Sarraj of the Muslim

Attempts to Remove Morales’ Memory from Bolivia Will Likely Reinvigorate an Anti-Imperialist Struggle By Paul Antonopoulos, January 21 2020

Last Wednesday, the coup government of Bolivia launched a massive military operation claiming to be a pre-emptive strike against the expected violence to occur this Wednesday during Plurinational State Foundation Day celebrations that memorializes the change in the name of

Support Independent Media: Global Research Needs Your Help By The Global Research Team, January 20 2020

At Global Research we have always sought out ways to make the articles we publish accessible to as many people as possible. We want the information on our website to circulate freely which is why we don’t use paywalls, you …

My God and My Glock – The Theology of Guns in America By Larry Romanoff, January 20 2020
The Glock is a series of  semi-automatic pistols designed Austrian manufacturer Glock Ges.m.b.H.
According to Americans, God is a really pro-gun dude. In fact, one pastor of a New Bethel Christian Church gave a sermon where he announced that
Is 2020 China’s Year of Economic and Political Milestone? By Tom Clifford, January 20 2020

Just as one New Year’s festivities end, another begins. China is set to celebrate the Year of the Rat on January 25. Folklore says it’s a good year for business and fertility. But it also marks an economic and

Martin Luther King Day 2020: Memphis, Tenn. Court Decision, U.S. “Government Agencies” Found Guilty in Martin Luther King’s Assassination By Carl Herman, January 20 2020
After four weeks of testimony and over 70 witnesses in a civil trial in Memphis, Tennessee, twelve jurors reached a unanimous verdict on December 8, 1999 that Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.
The Libya Conference and “The New Scramble for Africa” By Johannes Stern, January 20 2020

A major international conference on Libya will convene in Berlin on Sunday. At the invitation of Germany’s Chancellor Angela Merkel, heads of state and top officials of the leading imperialist powers in Europe and the US will come together to

Israel and Bedouins Face Off in the Negev Desert By Jack Dalton, January 20 2020

Mohammad Danfiri stands at the edge of his Bedouin family’s sheep enclosure in the Negev Desert, looking out at a pair of cell phone towers at the top of a nearby hill. They are situated in an open spot between

More to the Flight 752 Tragedy than First Appearances Suggest By James ONeill, January 20 2020

On 3 January 2020 a drone, believed to be operated by the United States, fired a missile upon a convoy of cars departing Baghdad airport, killing at least nine persons. Amongst the victims was Major General Qassem Solemani, a

Top Government Brexit Advisor’s Dire Warning About Future By True Publica, January 20 2020

After over three years of chaotic and often bad-tempered negotiations to leave the EU – part one of Britain’s bitter separation becomes a reality in just two weeks.

The vast majority of the British public had no idea just how …

How an “International Shadowy Group” Is Influencing India’s Food Policy By Great Game India, January 20 2020

International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), an American nonprofit with an innocuous sounding name has been quietly infiltrating Indian government’s health and nutrition bodies influencing India’s food policy on behalf of the chemical industry.

New Food Packaging Labeling Rules

Last year …

As Neo-Nazis Head to Richmond, Trump Boosts Gun-rights Rally By Patrick Martin, January 20 2020

On the eve of a planned right-wing gun-rights rally in Richmond, Virginia, fascists and white supremacists are reportedly heading for the Virginia state capitol, hoping to create a “second Charlottesville,” modeled on the neo-Nazi riot in 2017 which killed one

How Mercenaries and Advisers Fight the Wars the UK Won’t Own By Paul Rogers, January 20 2020

‘Mercenary’ is an evocative word, conjuring thoughts of adventure in foreign lands and elastic personal ethics, but probably not the bureaucratic calculations of British foreign policy. That is a tribute to the success of governments in keeping their use of

US Boosts Funding of Tech Companies to Help Anti-Tehran Protests By Katrina Manson, January 20 2020

US government-funded technology companies have recorded an increase in the use of circumvention software in Iran in recent weeks after boosting efforts to help Iranian anti-regime protesters thwart internet censorship and use secure mobile messaging.

The outreach is part of …

General Haftar Still Holds All the Cards After Berlin’s Libya Summit By Andrew Korybko, January 20 2020

Berlin’s Libya summit ended without any real changes to the status quo despite all relevant foreign parties to that country’s civil war superficially agreeing to some key points such as the need to abide by the arms embargo and commit

Diminishing Returns: Calculated Misery in Air Travel By Dr. Binoy Kampmark, January 20 2020

If there comes a point when people will decide not to fly, the issue may well be less to do with any moral or ethical issue with climate change than the fact that commercial flights have become atrocious. They are

Africa: For-profit Investments Are Not ‘Development’ By Dan Carden, January 20 2020

This week’s UK-Africa Investment Summit will send a clear signal. The UK government’s aid policy will not be driven by evidence about how to best fight global poverty, but instead by naked free market ideology and the interests of British

The People of Colombia Are Cracking Up the Walls of War and Authoritarianism By Justin Podur, January 20 2020

The protests that started with the national strike called by Colombia’s central union on November 21 to protest pension reforms and the broken promises of the peace accords have persisted for two months and grown into a protest against the

The Mad Geopolitics of Israel’s EastMed Gas Pipeline By F. William Engdahl, January 20 2020

At just a time when the world holds its collective breath over risk of a World War over the US assassination of Iran’s leading general and other provocations, Israel has chosen to sign a natural gas pipeline deal with Greece

“Orders to Kill” Dr. Martin Luther King: The Government that Honors MLK with a National Holiday Killed Him By Edward Curtin, January 20 2020
Few people, in a massive act of self-deception, have chosen to question the official explanation, choosing, rather, to embrace a mythic fabrication intended to sugarcoat the bitter fruit that has resulted from the murder of the one man capable of leading a mass movement for revolutionary change in the US.
Making America Great Again in a New Wild West By William deBuys, January 20 2020

A new Wild West has taken root not far from Tombstone, Arizona, known to many for its faux-historical reenactments of the old West. We’re talking about a long, skinny territory — a geographic gerrymander — that stretches east across New

How Perception Management Has Wrecked Reality By Greg Guma, January 20 2020

In The Secret Man, Bob Woodward’s book about his Watergate source Deep Throat, he notes, “Washington politics and secrets are an entire world of doubt.” And that was before Trump and cyberwar.

Even though Woodward knew the identity of his …

Trump’s Legal Team Responds to Dems Impeachment Scam By Stephen Lendman, January 20 2020

There’s overwhelming just cause to impeach and remove Trump from office for legitimate high crimes.  

The same is true for most of his predecessors, along with most current and former congressional members.

The Constitution’s Article II, Section 4 states “(t)he …

The Roots of American Demonization of Shi’a Islam By Pepe Escobar, January 20 2020

The US targeted assassination, via drone strike, of Maj. Gen. Qassem Soleimani, apart from a torrent of crucial geopolitical ramifications, once again propels to center stage a quite inconvenient truth: the congenital incapacity of so-called US elites to even attempt

Ike Was Right By Eric Margolis, January 20 2020

“In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists, and will persist. Now this conjunction of an

The Truth About the Trump Economy By Joseph E. Stiglitz, January 20 2020

It is becoming conventional wisdom that US President Donald Trump will be tough to beat in November, because, whatever reservations about him voters may have, he has been good for the American economy. Nothing could be further from the truth.

Pompeo Claims to Know Nothing, but Can We Believe Him? By Steven Sahiounie, January 20 2020

Secretary of State Mike Pompeo stated in a Friday radio interview that he had not been previously aware that former US Ambassador Marie Yovanovitch had been under surveillance in Ukraine. “Until this story broke, the best of my recollection, I’d

Dr. Martin Luther King as an Inspiration and a Role Model By Imad Hamad, January 20 2020

On Dr. Martin Luther King’s day (January 20, 2020), we remember a global icon that has been an inspiration to men and women across the globe struggling for human rights for all. Despite all the serious human rights and

In the Spirit of Martin Luther King: Revolting Children Inspire Joyous Rebellion By Edward Curtin, January 20 2020

“Our problem is civil obedience,” said the people’s historian Howard Zinn.

I kept thinking of this issue of obedience and disobedience as I was watching the musical play Matilda, based on the book by the impish writer Roald Dahl, at

‘Scale of this Failure Has No Precedent’: Scientists Say Hot Ocean ‘Blob’ Killed One Million Seabirds By Jessica Corbett, January 20 2020

On the heels of new research showing that the world’s oceans are rapidly warming, scientists revealed Wednesday that a huge patch of hot water in the northeast Pacific Ocean dubbed “the blob” was to blame for killing about one million

The Court of Appeal of Turin Confirms the Link Between a Head Tumour and Mobile Phone Use By Equipe Phonegate, January 20 2020

The Court of Appeal of Turin confirms in a full judgment published on 13 January 2020 (904/2019 of 3.12.2019 , Romeo v. INAIL) the decision of the Tribunal of Ivrea of 2017. Judge Fadda considers that the worker’s acoustic neuroma

NAFTA 1.0: Was It a “Legal Agreement”? One of Its Signatories Linked to Organized Crime. And What About NAFTA 2.0? By Prof Michel Chossudovsky, January 19 2020

Public opinion has its eyes riveted on USMCA, which is tagged as NAFTA 2.0. It is important at this stage to focus on the murky history of NAFTA 1.0  as well as the transition to NAFTA 2.0.

USMCA modifies the

Trump Threatens to Kill Iran’s Spiritual Leader By Kurt Nimmo, January 19 2020

Trump murdered Qassem Soleimani for “saying bad things” about the USG, according to The Hill. The president, gathered Friday at Mar-a-Lago with donors and supporters, also threatened Ali Khamenei, Iran’s supreme leader. 



Video: The WHO’s Vaccine Experts Inadvertently Communicate to the World that “Vaccine Hesitancy” Makes Scientific Sense By Dr. Gary G. Kohls, January 19 2020

In this expose, the WHO vaccine experts admit that:

  • Vaccines can be fatal.
  • The design of safety studies makes it difficult to spot problems.
  • Safety monitoring is inadequate.
  • Vaccine adjuvants increase risk.

“The FDA receives 45% of its annual budget

2019 Year in Review: From Corporate Capture of Social Media to Trump’s War Agenda to Climate Change By Michael Welch, Abby Martin, Robbie Martin, and Andy Roth, January 19 2020

“It just seems like people have really lost their way, severed ties with reality completely, where we’re listening to some pied piper online instead of really questioning authority. questioning the power structures like we should be all along!” – Abby …

Trump Is the Third President to Lie About Afghan War Success By Prof. Marjorie Cohn, January 19 2020

The Bush, Obama and Trump administrations all routinely lied to the American people about the success of the 18-year war in Afghanistan. They exaggerated progress and inflated statistics to create an illusion that that the war was winnable. But after

Remarks on the US/China “Trade Deal” By Dr. Paul Craig Roberts, January 19 2020

The first thing to understand is that it is not a trade deal.  It is Trump backing off his tariffs when he discovered that the tarrifs fall on US goods and American consumers, not on China.  Trump is covering his

Pompeo Says Gangland-Style Hit on Soleimani Was “Restoration of Deterrence” By Mike Whitney, January 19 2020

America’s “shadow president”, Mike Pompeo, has acknowledged that the assassination of Iran’s highest-ranking military general, Qassem Soleimani, was part of a broader strategy to restore “real deterrence” by eliminating presumed enemies of the United States. Pompeo’s comments at

Iran – The EU – The Three Trigger Dispute Mechanism in the Iran Nuclear Deal and Trump’s Bluff By Peter Koenig, January 19 2020

Why, after so many assurances to the contrary, have the three European Iran’s Nuclear Deal Partner’s – Germany, France, the UK – decided to go after Iran, to follow the US dictate again?

The short answer is because the cowards. …

Putin’s Now Purged the West from the Kremlin. Medvedev Cabinet dissolved By Tom Luongo, January 19 2020

It came as the biggest shock of the day on Wednesday. The Russian government resigned. The day before President Vladimir Putin gave his State of the Nation address and outlined a slate of constitutional changes.

That speech prompted an overhaul …

France’s Popular Uprising: Revolution or Frozen Conflict? By Diana Johnstone, January 19 2020

The people are angry with their government.  Where? Just about everywhere. So what makes ongoing strikes in France so special?  Nothing, perhaps, except a certain expectation based on history that French uprisings can produce important changes – or if not,

Video: Turkish Invasion of Libya? Erdogan Sends Troops By South Front, January 18 2020

In early 2020, Libya became one of the main hot points in the Greater Middle East with stakes raised by Turkey’s decision to launch a military operation there.

On January 5, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that Turkey had sent …

Nuclear Weapons: Trump Regime Pressured E3 Countries (UK, France, Germany) to Trigger JCPOA Dispute Mechanism By Stephen Lendman, January 18 2020

Post-WW II, Washington transformed Western European countries into virtual US colonies — their presence status.

Judge them by their actions. Time and again, they subordinate their sovereign rights to US interests, even when harming their own.

It shows by imposing …

Take My Benefits – Please! Medicare System in Crisis By Mark Dudzic, January 18 2020

At the June 2019 House Ways and Means Committee Hearing on Medicare for All, Texas Republican Kevin Murphy lamented, “That great health care plan that your union negotiated for you? It’s gone. Banned under Medicare for All.”

A right-wing congressman …

The World Looks to Abandon the Dollar as US Sanctions Tighten Their Grip By Ryan McMaken, January 17 2020

When the US places financial sanctions on one country, it de facto sanctions many other countries as well — including many of its allies.

This is because not all countries and firms are interested in participating in the US sanctions-based …