Global Research News

Preview of Biden’s Foreign Policy Shifts By M. K. Bhadrakumar, January 17 2021

In his first media interview, the incoming US National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan has given a preview of Joe Biden administration’s foreign policy directions in regard of Russia, Iran and China. Major shifts can be expected in the policies

The 2020 Worldwide Corona Crisis: Destroying Civil Society, Engineered Economic Depression, Global Coup d’État and the “Great Reset” By Prof Michel Chossudovsky, January 17 2021
We are at the crossroads of one of the most serious crises in modern history. We are living history, yet our understanding of the flow of events since January 2020 has been blurred. Worldwide, people have been misled both by their governments and the media.
Wednesday, January 6, 2021: The Siege on Capitol Hill. The Impeachment of Donald Trump By Michael Welch, Dr. Paul Craig Roberts, Barrie Zwicker, and Jason Bermas, January 16 2021

“The purpose of impeachment is to get somebody out of office. If they’re already out of office what’s the purpose? It’s all a political act, and the Establishment getting rid of a non-establishment figure who was seen as a treat

Martin Luther King’s Warning of America’s Spiritual Death By Dr. Gary G. Kohls, January 15 2021

On January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King, Jr. is born in Atlanta, Georgia

Martin Luther King Jr.’s Riverside Church speech was titled “Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence.” It was delivered exactly one year before his April 4,

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Born this Day: Prophet Who Saw the “Far Deeper Malady” By David W. Mathisen, January 15 2021

January 15 is the day on which Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born, in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1929.

He would go on to become one of the most powerful voices of all time against racism, oppression, violence, imperialism, and

Trump Hardliners Poisoning US-China Relations. Pompeo “Spreads Political Viruses” By Stephen Lendman, January 15 2021

In its waning days in power, Trump regime hardliners are going all-out to more greatly deteriorate US relations with China than already — Pompeo leading the assault.

Mindful of what’s going on with more coming, China’s Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao

Biden/Harris Proposed $1.9 Trillion Stimulus Plan By Stephen Lendman, January 15 2021

What Biden proposed Thursday may or may not be what Congress passes and gets enacted into law.

Whatever becomes law, special interests may largely benefit when funds are dispensed.

Much of what was in last year’s $2.2 trillion CARES Act …

Martin Luther King Day 2021: Memphis, Tenn. Court Decision, U.S. “Government Agencies” Found Guilty in Martin Luther King’s Assassination By Carl Herman, January 15 2021
After four weeks of testimony and over 70 witnesses in a civil trial in Memphis, Tennessee, twelve jurors reached a unanimous verdict on December 8, 1999 that Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy.
MLK Day: Who Killed Martin Luther King? The Cover-Up of the Century By Asad Ismi, January 15 2021

 First published on January 19, 2016

“The United States government is the greatest purveyor of violence in the world.”- Martin Luther King

On December 8, 1999, a jury in Memphis, Tennessee, reached the verdict that Martin Luther King Jr. was

Video: Israel and US Efforts in Large-scale Strikes on Iranian Infrastructure in Syria By South Front, January 15 2021

The first two weeks of 2021 have, so far, been marked by an incredible increase in Israeli activity in the skies over Syria.

The most intense strike took place on January 13 morning hitting multiple Syrian and Iranian-affiliated targets in

The New America of Terror and Discontent By Richard Gale and Dr. Gary Null, January 15 2021

For the vast majority of Americans, the past year has been the most challenging in their lives – certainly for young adults.  However, not everyone has been suffering equally. The nation’s health or illness is not uniform. Much of our

You Are Surrounded by Propaganda. “The Invisible Government” By Rod Driver, January 15 2021

“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of

COVID-19: Rethinking the Lockdown Groupthink By Dr. Ari Joffe, January 15 2021

Abstract

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic in 2020. In response, most countries in the world implemented lockdowns, restricting their population’s movements, work, education, gatherings, and general activities in

What’s the Point of Impeaching Trump Twice? By Andrew Korybko, January 15 2021

Despite Trump agreeing to leave the White House next Wednesday after losing the election under contentious circumstances, the Democrats and their “Republican In Name Only” (RINO) allies pushed Trump’s historic second impeachment through the House on allegations that he “incited

Biden’s Pick: Will the Senate Confirm Coup Plotter Victoria Nuland? By Medea Benjamin, Nicolas J. S. Davies, and Marcy Winograd, January 15 2021

Who is Victoria Nuland? Most Americans have never heard of her because the U.S. corporate media’s foreign policy coverage is a wasteland. Most Americans have no idea that President-elect Biden’s pick for Deputy Secretary of State for Political Affairs

The mRNA COVID Vaccine Is Not a Vaccine By Makia Freeman, January 15 2021

It’s NOT a vaccine. The mRNA COVID vaccine now being militarily deployed in many nations around the world, is NOT a vaccine. I repeat: it is not a vaccine. It is many things indeed, but a vaccine is not one

Canadian Expert’s Research Finds Lockdown Harms Are 10 Times Greater than Benefits By Dr. Ari Joffe and Anthony Furey, January 15 2021

Below in an excerpt of an important interview published by the Toronto Sun

To Read the complete Toronto Sun Interview clicl here 

Dr. Ari Joffe is a specialist in pediatric infectious diseases at the Stollery Children’s Hospital in Edmonton and

Art as Liberation: The Mexican Muralists at the New York Whitney Museum By Prof. Sam Ben-Meir, January 15 2021

Vida Americana is an exhilarating, expansive and immensely satisfying exhibition at New York’s Whitney Museum. Like a great and varied feast, this is a show that one must take one’s time to fully appreciate and digest; an exhibition that includes

Global Research PDF Collection: 6 PDF Books for 1 Price By Global Research, January 15 2021

Purchase six e-books from Global Research Publisher’s PDF collection at a discounted price. Download your order as a zipped folder straight to your computer and avoid shipping and handling costs.

Special Offer: Global Research PDF Collection – 6 PDF Books

This Week’s Most Popular Articles By Global Research News, January 15 2021
Encircling China and Praising India: The US Strategic Framework for the Indo-Pacific By Dr. Binoy Kampmark, January 15 2021
History of Economic Thought: John Maynard Keynes and the Battle for Bretton Woods By Matthew Ehret-Kump, January 14 2021

Under the Keynesian takeover of Bretton Woods Trans-Atlantic nations became increasingly dominated by bloated bureaucratic systems while plans for genuine development were undermined, Matthew Ehret writes.

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It is as if the battle lines of civil war have been drawn …

On Being Sane in Insane Places By Dr. Gary G. Kohls, January 14 2021

This article was originally published by Duluth Reader in September 2010, updated on January 11, 2021

In 1973, Dr. D. L. Rosenhan, a professor of psychology and law at Stanford University, published a ground-breaking psychiatric study in the January 19

The Government Is Serious About Creating Mind-Controlled Weapons By Edd Gent, January 14 2021

Selected excerpts from the Live Science Article published in May 2019.

To read the complete article on Science Magazine, click here

DARPA, the Department of Defense’s research arm, is paying scientists to invent ways to instantly read soldiers’ minds using

Review: As Coronavirus Rises Past Three Million, Africa Still Lacks Its Own Vaccine By Kester Kenn Klomegah, January 14 2021

With its large population and fragile health systems, Africa has recorded more than three million Covid-19 cases, still less deadly as compared to other regions in the world, according to the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC).

Video: Eye of the Storm: United States and Iran Flex Muscles Expecting New Confrontation By South Front, January 14 2021

U.S. President Donald Trump and his entourage have evidently lost the “war at home”. The internal struggle is all but entirely concluded, and the victors are Joe Biden, Kamala Harris and the Democratic Party.

However, Trump and Co., in their …

The History of US and British Support to Mussolini’s Fascism By Shane Quinn, January 14 2021

A figure like Benito Mussolini could only have taken power in a nation plagued by severe illness. Italy, a resource poor state, had been virtually bankrupted by expenditure in World War One, with the Liberal-led Italian governments dispensing with more

“What Happened at the Capitol Could Not Happen Unless Police Allowed It to Happen” By Mara Verheyden-Hilliard and Janine Jackson, January 14 2021

Janine Jackson interviewed the Partnership for Civil Justice Fund’s Mara Verheyden-Hilliard on police responsibility for the January 6 insurrection for the January 8, 2021, episode of CounterSpin. This is a lightly edited transcript.

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Janine Jackson:

China’s International Development Cooperation, A Stunning Success By Andrew Korybko, January 14 2021

One of the most significant chapters in China’s newly released white paper concerns its support of developing countries’ endogenous growth, which crucially contradicts the US’ information warfare narrative that Beijing is laying so-called “debt traps” for its partners.

Xinhua reported

International Support Continues for Protesting Farmers in India By Colin Todhunter, January 14 2021

On 5 January, British MP Tanmanjeet Singh Dhesi wrote a letter to Boris Johnson urging him to convey to Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi the “heartfelt anxieties” of MPs’ constituents (many emanating from Punjab) regarding the treatment of protesting farmers

No One Is Listening: A Country Divided Against Itself By Philip Giraldi, January 14 2021

The U.S. may morph into two nations with the increasingly impoverished helot “deplorables” under the heel of the empowered social justice warriors.

In a recent article Catholic University professor Claes G. Ryn wrote

“Few people are really open to persuasion …

Trump Impeached Again, Nearly Half the Country Opposed By Stephen Lendman, January 14 2021

There’s no ambiguity about Trump’s legion of supporters.

On average, polls show that nearly half of voting-age Americans oppose impeaching Trump and removing him from office.

Yet Wednesday on the House floor, lynch mob “justice” triumphed over the rule of …

9/11 Was the Prelude. 1/6 Is the Holy Grail By Pepe Escobar, January 14 2021

Whether civil war is coming will depend on the degree of stoicism prevalent among the Deplorable multitudes.

I hear the sons of the city and dispossessed
Get down, get undressed
Get pretty but you and me
We got the kingdom,

Campaigners Call for Closure of EU’s Wildlife Trafficking Loopholes and Criminalisation of Wildlife Smuggling, to End “Stolen Wildlife” Crisis By Humane Society International, January 14 2021

Animal protection campaigners have called for the urgent closure of gaping loopholes in EU wildlife trade regulations that fail to prevent the trafficking of protected wild species.

At Stolen Wildlife, an online conference, Humane Society International/Europe and Pro Wildlife …

The Pentagon, Corporations and Slave Labor in U.S. Prisons By Sara Flounders, January 14 2021

This article was originally published by Workers World on June 11, 2011.

It is not only federal prisons that contract out prison labor to top corporations. State prisons that used forced prison labor in plantations, laundries and highway chain gangs

Can China Lead a World Economic Recovery? By F. William Engdahl, January 14 2021

At the beginning of December China’s Xi Jinping officially declared that China had eliminated poverty entirely, part of his priority program. Western financial pundits have praised the remarkable economic recovery of China following the severe lockdowns a year go to

Looming Large: The Middle East Braces for Fallout of US–China Divide By James M. Dorsey, January 14 2021
The Trump Administration’s Parting Outrage Against Cuba By Medea Benjamin and Leonardo Flores, January 13 2021

On January 11, in his final days before leaving office, Secretary of State Mike Pompeo added one parting blow to the series of bludgeons his administration has inflicted on Cuba for four years: putting the island on the list of

Video: Mysterious Aircraft Pound Turkish Oil Smugglers in Syria. US Supply Convoys Are Blown Up in Iraq By South Front, January 13 2021

The first month of 2021 was marked by a new round of violence in Syria. The situation was especially complicated in Greater Idlib, northern Aleppo and in the central desert.

On January 8, ISIS terrorists launched a large attack on

History of the Russian Revolution: Separating Truth from Myth By Max Parry, January 13 2021

There is a deceitful and ahistorical myth that frequently resurfaces in right-wing circles seeking to discredit socialism with lies about the Russian Revolution. No matter how many times it has been invalidated as fabrication, the reactionary mythos endures. As might

What’s the Future of Afghanistan After Trump? US Troops Replaced by Private Military Contractors? By Andrew Korybko, January 13 2021

Biden’s Foreign Policy

Many questions are swirling about President-Elect Biden’s foreign policy upon his impending inauguration next week, but one of the most relevant for all of Eurasia is what his stance will be towards the US’ seemingly never-ending War

Ten Things You Need to Know about the Experimental COVID Vaccines By Makia Freeman, January 13 2021

Experimental COVID Vaccines

are coming to town, being rolled out worldwide as the transhumanistic New World Order (NWO) agenda dictates. This next phase of the COVID scamdemic is an incredibly dangerous one – the phase where authorities take their sovereignty-violating

Biden’s Patriot Act 2.0: Exploiting the Chaos to Impose More Surveillance and Censorship By Rainer Shea, January 13 2021

GR Editor’s Note

With regard to the coverage of the Wednesday Capitol Event, Global Research will be publishing opposing and contradictory points of view by several of our authors.

We are dealing with a complex and far-reaching political process. We …

Trump Impeachment: Democrats Launch Their Assault on “Red State America” By Dr. Paul Craig Roberts, January 13 2021

GR Editor’s Note

With regard to the coverage of the Wednesday Capitol Event, Global Research will be publishing opposing and contradictory points of view by several of our authors.

We are dealing with a complex and far-reaching political process. We …

Video: “Lockdown” Public Health Policies in Ontario: Dr. Naomi Wolf Talks to Courageous Physician Dr. Patrick Phillips By Dr. Patrick Phillips and Naomi Wolf, January 13 2021

Dr. Patrick Phillips, a family physician and front liner in health care in Ontario, talks with Dr. Naomi Wolf of Daily Clout on the devastating impacts of COVID-19 lockdown. 

He firmly believes that the consequences outweigh the benefits and

Why Does the US Department of Justice Want to Worsen the Split in the US Population? By Dr. Paul Craig Roberts, January 13 2021

The initial charges against those few who entered the Capitol during the Trump rally were “entering a restricted building without permission and engaging in disorderly conduct while inside.”  This charge does not carry sufficient punishment for the kind of example

Will Trump Be First US President Removed From Office or Convicted Post-Tenure? By Stephen Lendman, January 13 2021

Only three US presidents were impeached — Andrew Johnson for sacking his war secretary Edwin Stanton, Bill Clinton for lying about sex, and Trump twice.

The first time was for winning an election he was supposed to lose and unorthodox …

Britain to Issue Vaccine Passports By Stephen Lendman, January 13 2021

According to the London Telegraph, UK vaccine passports “could be rolled out across the UK” if Boris Johnson’s “trial” run goes as planned.

Biometrics firm iProov and cybersecurity firm Mvine developed a digital passport for the trial in two …

Why Are People Going Hungry in India Despite a Massive Grain Surplus? By Prof Prabhat Patnaik, January 13 2021
Saudi-led Embargoes Against Qatar Failed By Paul Antonopoulos, January 13 2021

2021 began with a historic decision in the Middle East as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Bahrain and Egypt decided to end their diplomatic and economic embargo against Qatar. The decision to end the embargo, that has been

Agroecology and Post-COVID Plunder By Colin Todhunter, January 13 2021

Contingent on World Bank aid to be given to poorer countries in the wake of coronavirus lockdowns, agrifood conglomerates will aim to further expand their influence. These firms have been integral to the consolidation of a global food regime that

New Research: Nitrous Oxide Emissions 300 Times More Powerful than CO₂ Are Jeopardising Earth’s Future By Pep Canadell, Prof. Eric Davidson, Glen Peters, and et al., January 13 2021

Nitrous oxide from agriculture and other sources is accumulating in the atmosphere so quickly it puts Earth on track for a dangerous 3℃ warming this century, our new research has found.

Each year, more than 100 million tonnes of nitrogen

The Top 10 Weather and Climate Events of a Record-setting Year By Dr. Jeff Masters and Dana Nuccitelli, January 13 2021

Calendar year 2020 was an extreme and abnormal year, in so many ways. The global coronavirus pandemic altered people’s lives around the world, as did extreme weather and climate events. Let’s review the year’s top 10 such events.

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How much rainforest is being destroyed? By Rhett A. Butler, January 13 2021

This article was originally published in June 2020 by Mongabay.

Primary forests in the tropics are declining at an accelerating rate according to analysis of satellite data released last week by the University of Maryland (UMD) and World Resources Institute

Julian Assange, WikiLeaks and Australia’s Complicity By Dr. Binoy Kampmark, January 13 2021

Australia’s Foreign Minister, Marise Payne, said little in the statement from her department, which was a good thing, as it might have been dangerously useful.  The finding of a UK court on whether Julian Assange would be extradited

Biden Exploits His Capitol Gains By Diana Johnstone, January 13 2021

Joe Biden’s own language certainly sounded less like a magnanimous winner uniting his people than like that used by autocrats and dictators to hold onto power, argues Diana Johnstone.

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What happened in the Capitol on Jan. 6 was not

A Nation Imploding: Digital Tyranny, Insurrection and Martial Law By John W. Whitehead, January 13 2021

“In this difficult day, in this difficult time for the United States, it is perhaps well to ask what kind of a nation we are and what direction we want to move in. [Y]ou can be filled with bitterness, with

US Unemployed Rising, Evictions, Mortgages Crisis Brewing, Small Business Collapsing: Economic Consequences of a 2nd ‘Mitigation’ Bill By Dr. Jack Rasmus, January 13 2021

As of mid-December 2020 the US economy has begun showing increasing signs of an exceptionally weak 4th quarter, October-December, growth. After having collapsed -10.5% in the March-June 2020 period, followed by a partial ‘rebound’ (not sustained recovery) in the 3rd

Video: Masked Agenda: Dystopian Sci-Fi Short Film By Zachary Denman, January 12 2021

Masked Agenda is a dystopian sci-fi short film set after the masks were introduced into society to prevent the spread of the virus.

The vaccine has been found, but is only successful on a few…

Kain is a survivor after

The Main Form of Media Deception: Censorship by Omission By Rod Driver, January 12 2021

“We don’t understand how your government gets the media to repeat propaganda without question. In our country we have to tear finger nails out to get this level of co-operation.”(1) (Russian journalists visiting America during the cold war)

Censorship By

Violent Right Wing Forces Have Been Activated, It Requires Strategic Action to Stop Them By Margaret Flowers, January 12 2021

GR Editor’s Note

With regard to the coverage of the Wednesday Capitol Event, Global Research will be publishing opposing and contradictory points of view by several of our authors.

We are dealing with a complex and far-reaching political process. We …

January 6th at Capitol Hill: Blowback and the Ongoing Crisis of Legitimacy By Black Alliance for Peace, January 12 2021

Two Januarys ago, an obscure politician from a minor political party named Juan Guaido assumed a one-month chairmanship of the Venezuelan National Assembly. Then he promptly declared himself the interim president of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

The bizarre declaration …

Twitter “Nukes Trump”. Accuses POTUS of “Incitement of Violence” By Dr. Binoy Kampmark, January 12 2021

This was Twitter Safety’s January 8 post, full of noble concern: “After close review of recent Tweets from the @realDonaldTrump account and the context around them – specifically how they are being received and interpreted off Twitter – we

The World Economic Forum (WEF) and the “Jobs Reset Summit”- A New Outrage in Disguise By Peter Koenig, January 12 2021

The World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Jobs Reset Summit report (October 2020) starts out with some flowery wording. You have to give it to them.

They have a way with meaningless niceties, hardly anybody beats them.

Here we go for the

Life Today Seems Like a Dream, Surreal By Edward Curtin, January 12 2021

“Something is happening here,
But you don’t know what it is,
Do you, Mr. Jones?”

— Bob Dylan

It’s hard.

Life today seems like a dream, doesn’t it?  Surreal to the point where everything seems haunted and betwixt and between, …

For Whom the Bell Tolls: The State of Planet Earth at Year’s End 2020 By Robert J. Burrowes, January 12 2021

In 1624, English poet John Donne penned his famous poem ‘No Man Is an Island’, sublimely evoking the reality of human unity: ‘Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind.’ Therefore, he concluded his poem, ‘never

In Search of Enemies. Joe Biden’s Foreign Policy and National Security Team By Philip Giraldi, January 12 2021

What occurred at the United States Capitol last week was surely reprehensible, but to my mind the real enduring damage that was done to our form of government took place in a basement in Wilmington Delaware where president-designate Joe Biden

Can a Former US President be Impeached and Convicted? By Stephen Lendman, January 12 2021

The Constitution is unclear on this issue.

Professor of Politics Keith Whittington argued as follows:

“Impeachments are to protect the republic from dangerous officeholders…” 

“(T)he ability to disqualify a former officer who has been demonstrated to have committed grave abuses

Global Research: The Silencing of Independent Media. We Need Your Help By The Global Research Team, January 12 2021

We are currently facing an unprecedented threat to the independent media and freedom on the Internet.  An increasing number of search engines & social media implement algorithms which are negatively biased against independent news and analysis websites such as Global

Video: Police Allowing Some People into the Capitol By Justin Trouble, January 12 2021

More video footage of Wednesday January 6, 2021

VIDEO

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Hyperbolic COVID Modelling Oracle Predicts Nothing More than Typical Winter Flu Season By John C. A. Manley, January 12 2021

Yesterday, the CBC wrote:

“We are in a desperate situation, and when you see the [COVID] modelling, you’ll fall off your chair,” [Ontario Premier] Ford said Friday during a news conference filled with dire warnings of what Ontario faces

Impeaching Trump 2.0. By Stephen Lendman, January 12 2021

In December 2019, the Democratic Party initiated an impeachment process against Trump on two politicized counts with no merit.

Voting was almost entirely along party lines.

There were and remain justifiable reasons to impeach Trump and most of his predecessors

Twitter’s Ban on Trump Will Deepen the US Tribal Divide By Jonathan Cook, January 12 2021

Anyone who believes locking President Donald Trump out of his social media accounts will serve as the first step on the path to healing the political divide in the United States is likely to be in for a bitter disappointment.

Africa to Become Testing Ground for “Trust Stamp” Vaccine Record and Biometric Digital Payment System By Raul Diego, January 12 2021

First published on July 10, 2020, this article  reviews the biometric vaccine project sponsored by GAVI. 

A new biometric identity platform partnered with the Gates-funded GAVI vaccine alliance and Mastercard will launch in West Africa and combine COVID-19 vaccinations,

“Beyond Vietnam”, Silence is Betrayal: Martin Luther King’s Historic 1967 Speech By Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., January 12 2021
Very few Americans are aware of the historical 1999 civil law suit of the King Family against the US Government. (Shelby County Court, Tenn.), Martin Luther King was assassinated in a high level conspiracy on the orders of key agencies of the US government
COVID Tests Scientifically Fraudulent, Epidemic of “False Positives” By David DeGraw, Torsten Engelbrecht, and Konstantin Demeter, January 12 2021

First published by GR on August 5, 2020

Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests are used worldwide to “diagnose” Sars-Cov-2 infection. An in-depth investigation reveals clear scientific evidence proving that these tests are not accurate and create a statistically significant

Conspiracy Theory
The Global Reset – Unplugged. “The Deep State” By Peter Koenig, January 12 2021
Imagine, you are living in a world that you are told is a democracy – and you may even believe it – but in fact your life and fate is in the hands of a few ultra-rich, ultra-powerful and ultra-inhuman oligarchs. They may be called Deep State, or simply the Beast, ...
Patriot Act 2, Censorship, and Other Notes from the Edge of the Narrative Matrix By Caitlin Johnstone, January 11 2021

Patriot Act 2.0 will be rolled out with a lot of mindless bleating about white supremacists and fighting fascism, and the actual policies and laws put into place will have virtually nothing to do with any of those things. They

China’s Mission to Nepal Gains Traction By M. K. Bhadrakumar, January 11 2021
Congressional Aid for COVID Victims Takes Lessons from Parliament’s Stingy Aid to Irish in the Great Famine of the 1840s By Dr. Barbara G. Ellis, January 11 2021

The parallel of the American economic landscape from COVID’s deathly sweep seems far more like Ireland’s in the great potato famine  of 1845-52 than the Great Depression of the 1930s. And the stinginess and indifference by the upper classes ruling